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Antenna Array


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Complex directional antenna consists of separate near-omnidirectional antennas (radiating elements) positioned in the space and driven by high-frequency …

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Alexander Nikolaevich Gribanov, Leading Expert of NIIP (Zhukovsky City, Russia), Candidate of Science in technics.

Phase synthesis of special-shaped beams in phased antenna arrays of airborne radars



Published: 10/07/2010
Language: russian
Speciality: 05.12.04 — Radio engineering, including television systems and devices
Type: Candidate dissertation in technical sciences
Scientific coordinator: Alexey Nikitich Titov, Associate Professor, Candidate of Science in technics
Defended at: Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow
© A. N. Gribanov, 2007. All rights reserved.
© EDS–Soft, 2010. All rights reserved.


The aim of this thesis is to find, develop and research the methods of the phase synthesis of special-shaped beams for phased antenna arrays on airborne radars, including forming beams spread in one and two planes and of the “cosec2(θ)” type.

The scientific originality of the thesis consists in the following:

The method of phase synthesis of one-dimensionally spread beams named “the method of fan partial patterns” has been proposed. The method makes it possible to improve the shape of spread beams making them more rectangular, which leads to the increased beam levels and the increased spatial immunity of radars with PAAs.
The methods of determining the analytical relation between the values of one-dimensionally spread beam parameters and the parameters of phase distribution in the PAA aperture have been proposed and developed. Such an analytical relation makes it possible to calculate phase distributions necessary for forming spread beams with the required parameters directly during the operation of PAAs.
Software for the analysis and synthesis of PAA radiation characteristics has been developed. This program makes it possible to research the capabilities of the proposed methods of the phase synthesis of special beams.
For the first time, the analytical formulas of phase distribution in the aperture have been obtained for one-dimensionally spread sector beams in the form of dependence on the required beam spread factor. Such an analytical relation makes it possible to form one-dimensionally spread beams with the continuous values of spread factors directly during the operation of PAAs and also to change the beamforming plane in order to correct the aircraft evolution.
For the first time, the analytical formulas of phase distribution in the aperture have been found for spread beams of the “cosec2(θ)” type in the form of dependence on the required angles of the cosecant beginning and its length. Such an analytical relation makes it possible to form “cosec2(θ)” beams with the continuous values of the angles of cosecant beginning and length directly during the operation of PAAs and also to change the beamforming plane in order to correct the aircraft evolution.
The phase method of forming two-dimensionally spread beams with different spread factors in orthogonal planes that uses the superposition of phase distributions calculated for the corresponding cases of one-dimensional orthogonal spreads has been proposed. The method makes it possible to form two-dimensionally spread beams with the resulting rectangular radiation pattern with a small oscillation amplitude on its top and simultaneously with two differential radiation patterns suitable for direction-finding purposes.
The iteration method of the phase synthesis of a radiation pattern with the specified shape formed by PAAs with planar apertures that is based on the generalization of the known method for linear PAAs has been proposed. The method makes it possible, at the PAA development stage, to find phase distributions for forming special two-dimensionally spread special-shaped beams that cannot be formed by the fan partial radiation pattern method.

Practical significance of the thesis:

The phase methods grounded in the thesis, the mathematical modeling software and the developed methods of determining phase distribution in the form of a function of special beam parameters ensure the increased functionality and durability of an airborne radar with planar PAAs used both currently and in future. The methods have been developed up to calculation algorithms, software implementations and have been successfully tested experimentally.
The research results make it possible, at the PAA development stage, to use the current aperture parameters, amplitude distribution and beam shape requirements to calculate the parameters of the phase distribution that allows one-dimensionally spread special-shaped beams to be formed. Directly during the operation of PAAs, it is possible to use the obtained phase distribution calculation formula to form one-dimensionally spread beams with the continuous values of their parameters and, at the same time, to correct the aircraft evolution.
The developed methods and obtained research results can be used in the development of both passive and active PAAs installed aboard aircrafts, spacecrafts and ground vehicles.

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